UNDP - United Nations Development Programme

UNDP Sudan

Development of a Gender Responsive Conflict Analysis (GRCA) for Sudan

Location : Home based and Khartoum, SUDAN

Application Deadline : 24-Sep-22 (Midnight New York, USA)

Additional Category : Gender Equality

Type of Contract : Individual Contract

Post Level : National Consultant

Languages Required : Arabic English

Starting Date : (date when the selected candidate is expected to start)

01-Oct-2022

Duration of Initial Contract : 60 working days

Expected Duration of Assignment : 60 working days

UNDP is committed to achieving workforce diversity in terms of gender, nationality and culture. Individuals from minority groups, indigenous groups and persons with disabilities are equally encouraged to apply. All applications will be treated with the strictest confidence.

UNDP does not tolerate sexual exploitation and abuse, any kind of harassment, including sexual harassment, and discrimination. All selected candidates will, therefore, undergo rigorous reference and background checks.

Background

Background

UNDP supports the Women, Peace and Security Agenda through certain of its SDG localization programs. For example, N-Peace, or ‘Engage for Equality, Access, Community and Empowerment’ is a UNDP flagship initiative founded in 2010 to commemorate a decade of UNSCR 1325 implementation of the WPS agenda with the goal of increasing the role of women in conflict resolution and peace-building.

Peace and stability are essential for development in Sudan. That makes them UNDP’s top priority. Our approach provides support on the national, state and local levels, combining efforts to address conflicts and their root causes.

UN Women, grounded in the vision of equality enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations, works for the elimination of discrimination against women and girls; the empowerment of women and the achievement of equality between women and men as partners and beneficiaries of development, human rights, humanitarian action and peace and security. Placing women’s rights at the centre of all its efforts, UN Women leads and coordinates United Nations system efforts to ensure that commitments on gender equality and gender mainstreaming translate into action throughout the world. UN Women is mandated to lead the UN system-wide coordination of the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) Agenda, as elaborated inter-alia through UN Security Council resolutions—1325, 1820, 1888, 1889, 1960, 2106, 2122, 2242, 2467, and 2493. To this end, UN Women works with governments, UN partners, and civil society around the world to support women’s participation and influence at all levels of decision-making to prevent and resolve conflict, to protect their rights during and after conflicts and to ensure that their specific needs are addressed during repatriation, resettlement and for rehabilitation, reintegration and post-conflict reconstruction.

UN Women and UNDP signed a Memorandum of Understanding at global level in 2018, committing to strengthen cooperation including in crises and fragile states. UNDP and UN Women are partnering in Sudan to address gaps in the gender responsiveness of conflict analysis as well as data accessible through the Crisis Risk Dashboard. UNDP and UN women both recognize the importance of joint analysis and effective strategic planning across the United Nations system in its long-term engagement in conflict-affected countries while underscoring the importance of inclusivity of women, youth and CSOs and peace centres as critical in all conflict resolution, prevention, and peacebuilding efforts.

Context overview

Political instability throughout Sudan continues following the military takeover of 25 October 2021 which brought an impasse to Sudan’s democratic transition that was ushered in by popular protests led largely by young people and women in 2019. While a political path out of the current crisis is being sought, local violence has risen in several of Sudan’s states in including South Kordofan and increasingly West Kordofan. Intercommunal conflict spurred by competition for natural resources and livelihoods remains frequent and incidents are often followed by disproportionate reprisal attacks. Such dynamics are evident for instance among Arab-identified Baggara of the Hawazmah clan and ethnic Nuba in the Kadugli area of South Kordofan. Conflict between the government and rebel forces has declined although the faction of the SPLM-North led by Abdelaziz al-Hilu has not signed the Juba Peace Agreement. However, the region continues to be affected by the legacy of a decade long civil war. The Sudanese economy is suffering from multiple shocks: inflation and prices for basic foods have reached historical highs.

Women and young women have highlighted the cumulative impact of these negative trends: Insecurity related to the spread of small arms and light weapons in West and South Korodofan, the high number of militias and youth illegally carrying arms and recurring conflicts limit women’s mobility, restrict their access to markets and livelihoods. Inter-communal tensions fuelled by economic pressures and shrinking income opportunities place additional burdens on women who often care for orphans whose parents died during the war or support whole households where husbands were killed as a result of conflict.

The economic deterioration exposes women to increased protection risks. Women and adolescent girls report being increasingly pushed towards unsafe livelihood activities exposing them to sexual exploitation and of transactional sex as a coping strategy. Data collected in South and West Kordofan suggests that violence against women/girls is more prevalent than violence against men/boys, although men have different roles as perpetrators, survivors and witnesses, and are less likely to report abuse. Proximity to armed forces camps was identified in both states as a factor of heightened risk. Particularly in West Kordofan, sexual assault and harassment were identified as contributing to tribal conflict. Intersectionality with racial and tribal dynamics was identified in both states as a factor that increases vulnerability. Overall reporting of cases of sexual and gender-based violence is low due to lack of awareness, the high degree of stigma and limited trust in institutions. Where cases are reported, traditional justice mechanisms (Joudia) are typically used, which are male dominated and influenced by patriarchal power structures.

Intergenerational tension has reduced the moral authority of traditional leaders and native administrations. This is largely due to generational differences between traditional leaders and the young generation whose views are often based on practical considerations rather than traditional norms. As a consequence, conflict resolution capacity of traditional leaders and native administrations has been reduced. At the same time, women peacebuilders participation in conflict resolution continues to be limited by gender discrimination and women are almost entirely excluded from native administration. Harmful gender norms also impact men with militarized notions of manhood favouring a type of masculine identity in which frustration and deprivation can easily spill over into violence. The overall economic situation leaves particularly young men frequently unable to fulfil gendered roles as ‘provider’ and ‘protector’ of the household and young men are more likely to use violence to acquire economic goods regain a sense of control and power.

At an institutional level, the pre-military takeover, transitional government had recognized the critical role of women in peace and security, including reference and respective provisions in the Juba Peace Agreement (JPA) and endorsing the UNSC1325 National Action Plan (NAP) in 2020. However, with the prolonged political crisis and the absence of a legitimate government, implementation of the JPA and the NAP1325 and the National Plan on the Protection of Civilians are lagging behind as are efforts to develop state level peacebuilding plans while overall civic space has been shrinking.

Rationale for Gender-Responsive Conflict analysis (GCA/GRCA)

A deep understanding of context is essential for any peacebuilding interventions. Data on conflict, and in particular data on conflict from a gender lens, is currently weak to absent in Sudan. In addition, the response capacity from youth and women to emerging conflict is also weak. Similarly, while country-level Crisis Risk Dashboards (CRDs) are important sources of evidence to design programming, it has been challenging to include not just gender-disaggregated data, but indicators on the specific needs and vulnerabilities of women and girls that would help us design initiatives that respond to these needs. This is key to achieving gender-transformational results in crisis and fragile contexts.

This project aims to address these significant gaps in gender-responsive data and analysis by investing in information on conflict and early warning that can inform strong gender transformational programming in crisis recovery and peacebuilding, as well as enhance conflict prevention and mediation techniques of community peace builders (such as insider mediators) so as to be able to immediately respond to signals of escalation of violent conflict.

Despite Security Council Resolutions continued encouragement (S/RES/2282 (2016); S/RES/2467 (2019) ), the UN system still has capacity challenges in undertaking a conflict analysis with a gender lens. (SG Report on WPS, 2019). Many interventions aimed at facilitating WPS have approached women’s inclusion through top-down approaches: influencing policy and lawmakers, empowering women to realize their economic potential, and introducing quotas for women’s participation in peace agreements and political institutions. However, these approaches cannot always address the underlying structural causes of gender inequality. Furthermore, considering peace a top-level political or military process falls short of addressing the broader, nuanced issues faced by ordinary people affected by conflict in society.

Through a comprehensive gender-responsive conflict analysis (GRCA), gendered paths to conflict as well as peace can be identified, understood, and addressed. Such analysis is essential according to UNSCR 1325 for a sustainable peace. The results from a gender responsive conflict analysis (GRCA) can be used as an evidence base not only to inform WPS prioritization and programming as part of the transitions process, and to feed into broader UNCT programs straddling the humanitarian-peace-development nexus.

Duties and Responsibilities

Duties and Responsibilities: Undertake a gender–responsive conflict analysis, moving beyond documenting the gendered impact of conflict to assessing the gendered dynamics that can fuel conflict and can contribute to peace. The analysis will:

  • Identify the key factors and gender drivers contributing to conflict and peace.
  • Examine their differentiated impact on men, women, and diversities; Assess the impact of the security situation on women and men, boys and girls among the different social groups
  • Reflect on how power relations and social norms are influenced by these conflict/drivers, as well as by sustaining peace efforts in the country, including at the household, community, and regional level.
  • Identify current and potential roles of women as peacebuilders.
  • Develop a causal, role – pattern and capacity gap analysis framed by the human rights-based approach.
  • Undertake a system thinking of conflict analysis, an assessment of interconnectedness between factors (causes, consequences) and actors and dynamics of conflict which can help identify underlying causes of conflict and uncover opportunities to promoting/consolidating peace; Identify ways to enhance the role of women in the conflict areas.
  • Locate concrete programmatic opportunities to increase the gender-sensitivity, effectiveness and sustainability of the peace processes, linking them to programming opportunities.
  • Take an integrated approach to consultation and validation, including the use of inclusive and participatory methodology that will involve all stakeholders in the United Nations system and partners, as well as civil society and women peace builders.
  • Design and roll out a cross-section survey for the collection on quantitative data.

Undertake a simultaneous analysis of the current CRD indicators for Sudan, identifying data relevant gender equality sources that would strengthen and additional ways to integrate a gender dimension into monitoring and analysis of contextual risks in Sudan. This analysis will:

  • Identify the current gender-responsive indicators and data sources included in the Sudan CRD, and an analysis of their utility for informing gender transformational initiatives.
  • Suggest alternative and additional sources of gender-responsive indicators and data sources for the Sudan CRD and details of how these could inform the development of policies, plans and/or programming design.
  • Suggest ways to improve the number and quality of national indicators included in the CRD that can support and guide the development of gender transformational programming and providing guidance on identifying and integrating gender-sensitive data sources.
  • Suggest ways to increase demand for gender-responsive data and analysis from Country Offices (COs) and their partners.
  • Develop a report capturing analysis above, lessons learned, best practices, and recommendations that will inform the development of the customizable guidance, allowing for future scaling of the project to other countries.

Deliverables for Lead Consultant

  • Desk review of all the relevant literature, including a Gender-responsive analysis of Sudan CRD data and indicators.
  • Development of inception note for gender-responsive conflict analysis and CRD analysis, including an analytical grid and methodology through (FGD, interviews and meeting) to collect quantitative/qualitative data.
  • Data Collection through semi-structured interviews with CSOs, non-state actors (including the private sector) UN agencies, NGOs and women leaders are organized across the country, most likely remotely.
  • Drafting of Report on gender-responsive conflict analysis
  • Drafting report on CRD gender analysis
  • Final validation of the report in a national workshop (virtual or in person)
  • Develop a plan for programmatic implementation of the gender-responsive conflict analysis, in consultation with UN and other relevant development actors
  • Convene a Programming Workshop with UNDP Country Office programming staff to implement report findings.

Challenges: COVID and related movement restrictions; access to some parts of the country.

Expected timeframe: Three (3) months from October to December 2022 with the expectation of 60 working days.

October 2022: Desk-review of relevant literature and sources, including CRD data and indicators (10 days). Production inceptions note (5 days).

October – November 2022: Data collection; Development of guide questions for the (FGD, interviews and meetings) data collectors (10 days).

November 2022: Drafting of Report on gender-responsive conflict analysis. Including but not limited to: Executive Summary: Key Findings; Key Recommendations; Analysis of current gender-responsive indicators and data sources included in the Sudan CRD (10 days).

Draft Report on gender responsive CRD Analysis to be incorporated in the system as agreed in the inception note. Including Executive Summary: Key Findings; Key Recommendations, Demographic Profile; Strategic Gender Programming Recommendations; Opportunities, Key Actors; Conclusions, Follow up (7 days).

December 2022: Final validation of the report in a national workshop (6 days). Final Report (7 days) and Strategic future potential areas of programmatic intervention plan (5 days).

Final products and deliverables

The consultancy is expected to be completed within a period of three (3) months from the date of the contract signing with prioritized approach starting in the South and West Kordofan.

The consultancy will result in the following schedule of payment: Deliverable 1

Desk-review of relevant literature and sources, including CRD data and indicators.

Deliverable 2

Production inceptions note.

Deliverable 3

Data collection.

Development of guide questions for the (FGD, interviews and meetings) data collectors.

Deliverable 4

Drafting of Report on gender-responsive conflict analysis. Including but not limited to: Executive Summary: Key Findings; Key Recommendations; Analysis of current gender-responsive indicators and data sources included in the Sudan CRD.

Deliverable 5

Draft Report on gender responsive CRD Analysis to be incorporated in the system as agreed in the inception note. Including Executive Summary: Key Findings; Key Recommendations, Demographic Profile; Strategic Gender Programming Recommendations; Opportunities, Key Actors; Conclusions, Follow up

Deliverable 6

Final validation of the report in a national workshop (virtual or in person)

Deliverable 7

Final Report

Strategic future potential areas of programmatic intervention plan.

Evaluation

Applications will be evaluated based on the cumulative analysis.

  • Technical Qualification (100 points) weight; [70%]
  • Financial Proposal (100 points) weight; [30%]

A two-stage procedure is utilised in evaluating the applications, with evaluation of the technical application being completed prior to any price proposal being compared. Only the price proposal of the candidates who passed the minimum technical score of 70% of the obtainable score of 100 points in the technical qualification evaluation. The offeror who receives 70 points will be considered for the financial evaluation.

Technical evaluation criteria

Min. Requirement:

  • Masters or PhD (preferred) in conflict prevention and peacebuilding programming, gender/women’s studies, international development, social science, anthropology, or related fields.
  • At least 10 years progressively responsible experience in conflict prevention and peacebuilding programming, training, and/or analysis with significant experience mainstreaming gender into analysis processes.
  • At least 5 years of experience working on issues related to gender in Sudan. including demonstrated experience in doing research on areas of gender, development, peace and security in Sudan.

  • Strong understanding of the global Women, Peace and Security Agenda, normative frameworks and WPS programming.
  • Demonstrated (net)working relationships with national and local stakeholders involved in women’s human rights and gender equality work in Sudan, including women CSOs and women leaders that can be activated for the purposes of the research
  • Experience working with the UN and multilateral organizations in conflict and post-conflict contexts.
  • Relevant experience on gender and security /conflict assessment.

Submission of application

Interested candidates are requested to submit application package to UNDP job portal.

Submission package includes:

  • Letter of Confirmation of Interest and Availability (form provided by UNDP).
  • Personal CV or P11 of the Consultant indicating all experience from similar assignments, as well as the contact details (email and telephone number) of the Consultant and three (3) professional references.
  • Financial Proposal that indicates the all-inclusive fixed total contract price (including professional fees and any charges related to other expenses, i.e, logistic, travel and communications expenses), supported by a breakdown of costs in the financial proposal form attached to the Letter of Confirmation of Interest and Availability.
  • A brief outline of the initial approach/methodology proposed for leading the GRCA and CRD review, including on how to deal with the likely logistical challenges linked to COVID19 related travel restrictions
  • Writing samples (English)

Note: Financial proposal will be either in USD or SDG. The same currency of the offer will be applied in the contract, however, the payment shall be made to the consultant in SDG as per the UN Exchange Rate of the month of payment. The UN Exchange Rate is available at UN Operational Rates of Exchange – Rates

Competencies

Core Values:

  • Respect for Diversity
  • Integrity
  • Professionalism

Core Competencies:

  • Awareness and Sensitivity Regarding Gender Issues
  • Accountability
  • Creative Problem Solving
  • Effective Communication
  • Inclusive Collaboration
  • Stakeholder Engagement
  • Leading by Example

Required Skills and Experience

Qualifications, Experience and skills: National consultant:

  • Masters or PhD (preferred) in conflict prevention and peacebuilding programming, gender/women’s studies, international development, social science, anthropology, or related fields.
  • At least 10 years progressively responsible experience in conflict prevention and peacebuilding programming, training, and/or analysis with significant experience mainstreaming gender into analysis processes.
  • At least 5 years of experience working on issues related to gender in Sudan. including demonstrated experience in doing research on areas of gender, development, peace and security in Sudan.
  • Strong understanding of the global Women, Peace and Security Agenda, normative frameworks and WPS programming.
  • Demonstrated (net)working relationships with national and local stakeholders involved in women’s human rights and gender equality work in Sudan, including women CSOs and women leaders that can be activated for the purposes of the research.
  • Experience working with the UN and multilateral organizations in conflict and post-conflict contexts.
  • Ability to work independently and deliver on tight timelines.
  • Outstanding partnership skills, particularly with civil society, non-state actors and government stakeholders
  • Excellent analytical, research and writing skills
  • Demonstrated excellent written and oral communication skills in English.
  • Relevant experience on gender and security /conflict assessment.